The Worst Eating Habits For Diabetes
If you’re trying to lower blood sugar and stay healthy, make sure you aren’t committing these eating mistakes.
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease that prevents the body from properly handling blood sugar. When you eat food, your body converts sugars in the food into fuel your cells can use. Insulin carries that “food” into the cells where it’s used as energy for everyday tasks. If you have diabetes, however, the body becomes less capable of moving the sugar, and the cells become less responsive to the sugar they receive, too. The result: blood sugar levels that are too high. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 100 million Americans have diabetes or prediabetes (a condition that occurs when your blood sugar levels are elevated but not high enough to be diabetes).
Note: These 5 signs of prediabetes are way too easy to overlook.
You’re a breakfast skipper
We always hear that breakfast is the most important meal of the day, but this may be particularly true for individuals with diabetes, says Alison Massey, RD, a registered dietitian and director of diabetes education at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore, Maryland. Waiting too long to eat in the morning might result in hypoglycemia or blood glucose that is too low. “Even when my clients aren’t typical ‘breakfast eaters,’ I encourage them to incorporate a small snack into their morning routine, like Greek yogurt with some berries or a hard-boiled egg and slice of whole grain toast,” she says. It doesn’t have to be a sit-down meal, but make sure you have something healthy in your body so you don’t crash. Find out which breakfast foods are best for you.
Your diet contains too many of the wrong fats
Research suggests that excessive fat intake (more than 30 percent of total calories) may worsen insulin resistance. Stay away from meals that tend to contain high amounts of saturated fat, like those from fast food restaurants. While the mechanism isn’t clearly understood, some research has found a modest benefit in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on insulin resistance, as well as decreasing liver fat. MUFAs are good-for-you fats found in avocados, olive oil, nut butters, and seeds, to name a few. A diet that is high in MUFAs and lower in saturated fats is also associated with improvements in cardiovascular health, lower LDL cholesterol, and reduced triglycerides and blood pressure, says Massey.
Meat takes up half your plate
Overindulging in protein could impact your blood glucose levels, especially if that protein at your meal is from red meat, which may have an adverse impact on insulin sensitivity, says Massey. Increased consumption of red meat has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in research. It’s also not a bad idea to limit intake of red meats to improve cardiovascular health, says Massey. Here’s more on how your diet can help control type 2 diabetes.
Your meals aren’t balanced
Eating too much of one thing (like carbs) and not enough of another (like veggies and lean proteins) could cause blood sugar levels to spike. “Balanced meals help with satiety and provide you with all the nutrients you need,” says Massey. Pairing a lean protein (like a boneless, skinless chicken breast) with high carbohydrate food (like brown rice) may slow digestion, and help you feel full longer while having a minimal impact on blood glucose levels after the meal, she says. But please note: This is how long cooked chicken will last.
You forget to eat
OK, you may not have “forgotten” but if you let yourself get too busy and then realize it’s been hours since your last meal, you might be putting yourself in danger. “Waiting too long between meals can also result in hypoglycemia for individuals with diabetes, especially if they’re taking particular diabetes medications,” says Massey. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can get worse and cause confusion, clumsiness, or fainting. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Consistency with meal intake can also help with other habits that should be consistent like monitoring blood glucose regularly (for those who monitor before they eat) and taking medications as prescribed, Massey suggests. If you’re a diabetic or have prediabetes, make sure you have some candies, juice boxes, or milk on hand to raise your blood glucose levels up quickly if they’ve dipped too low.
Your snacks are made from white flour
“Although the glycemic index of foods is a bit controversial, the quality of carbohydrates in the diet matters,” says Massey. Refined carbohydrates (like white bread, pretzels, chips) have been linked in some studies to higher rates of insulin resistance. Limit processed products made with white flours and added sugars. Instead, focus on healthy snacks that are high in fibre and made with whole grains, like a string cheese stick and a few whole grain crackers, air-popped popcorn, or rice crackers and peanut butter.
You don’t know whether you should eat before exercise
Blood glucose monitoring before exercise is very important for diabetics because exercise lowers blood glucose. This provides information on whether or not a small snack might be needed to help prevent blood glucose that goes too low (hypoglycemia) during an exercise session, says Massey. “Typically, I recommend that my clients bring glucose tablets with them when they are exercising, so they can appropriately treat an incident of hypoglycemia.” Glucose gels or even sports drinks can also be useful for treating hypoglycemia during a workout session. If you’re consistently hypoglycemic with physical activity, talk to your doctor and/or diabetes educator because they may need to adjust your medication regimen.
Make sure you know these 50 fitness myths that can seriously damage your health.
Not only can losing weight improve insulin sensitivity but managing your weight is an important part of managing your diabetes. For individuals with type 2 diabetes, additional weight gain from overeating can contribute to more insulin resistance and also lead to needing more medication, says Massey. Eating large meals, especially those that contain a lot of carbohydrates, typically result in after-meal blood glucose readings that are elevated. Ideally, diabetics want after-meal blood glucose readings to be less than 180mg/dL. Oftentimes, Massey has people monitor blood glucose before and then two hours after a meal to really assess how their food choices are impacting blood glucose levels. “Typically we are looking for no more than a 40- to 50-point increase, so if the blood glucose is 120 before a meal and 250 after a meal, that 130-point difference indicates that the meal was too high in carbohydrates,” says Massey. Talk to your doctor or diabetes educator about how to create a diabetes-friendly meal plan that’s best for your health.
Your dinner or snack is too close to bedtime
Eating late at night can wreak havoc on fasting blood glucose levels the next morning. Late-night meals typically cause blood glucose levels to be elevated more than usual the next morning, which can be problematic especially if it’s above the blood glucose fasting target range (typically 80-130mg/dL per American Diabetes Association guidelines). “When I am discussing late-night snacking with my clients I typically recommend that they consume a small, fibre-rich carbohydrate snack (20 grams or less) with a lean protein to help with satiety,” says Massey. Ask yourself if you’re eating because you’re truly hungry or if you’ve simply developed the habit to snack at night. If it’s the latter, consider brewing a mug of herbal tea and finding something else to do instead of eating.
Your snacks are too big
For diabetes, snacks are one way to help keep blood sugar even throughout the day, but you have to be mindful of how many calories you’re getting from a single snack. “Watch the portion size and calorie count of snacks,” says Refaat Hegazi, MD, PhD, MPH, medical affairs for Abbott. “Pre-portion snacks so you aren’t tempted to eat a large quantity.” That means no eating straight from the bag, even if the food is healthy.
You’re eating too little fibre
Fibre helps slow the rise of blood glucose levels after a meal, and it interferes with cholesterol absorption, which can reduce your risk for heart-related health issues. “Adults should consume about 20 to 35 grams of fibre each day from a variety of foods, and the majority fall short of that target,” says Rebecca Dority, MS, RD, LD, CDE, director of Didactic Program in Dietetics at Texas Christian University. “In general, foods that are high in fibre do not raise blood glucose levels because fibre is not digested by the body.” Soluble fibre can be found in foods including oatmeal, lentils, apples, pears, blueberries, flax seeds, beans, and dried peas, Dority says.
You restrict carbohydrates too much
People with diabetes have to be aware of the number of carbohydrates they consume, as well as the type. However, too much of a good thing could be bad. “Sometimes, being too restrictive with carbohydrates can also be a downfall if it leads to binge eating them later,” says Haley Hughes MS, RD, CDE. To get a better handle on how many carbs you’re eating and what it does to your food choices and blood sugar, Hughes recommends people record what they’re eating and how it makes them feel. “I often encourage keeping a food journal along with tracking blood sugar (if your physician has advised you to do so) to better help understand trends and areas for improvement,” Hughes says. It’s not just foods that can impact your diabetes.
You drink your sugar (and calories)
“The number one thing my patients do to sabotage their success in managing their diabetes is drinking sweetened beverages like regular soft drinks, sweet tea, and juice,” says Julie Cunningham, MPH, RD, LDN, CDE, in Hendersonville, North Carolina. “People don’t realize how much sugar can be consumed in liquid form, and how quickly that can spike your blood sugar. Juice and soda are used to treat low blood sugar because they bring low blood sugar up quickly. That’s great if you’re low. If you’re not low and you drink those same beverages, you’re going to be high pretty quickly.”
Cunningham suggests people with diabetes trade the sweetened beverages for unsweetened drinks and only use the sweetened ones when you need to bring up low blood sugar levels quickly. It will help to also know this list of best and worst diabetic drinks.
You’re eating “low-fat” or “diet” food
The fad food of the ’80s still remains on store shelves, despite mounting evidence that tells us whole foods are better for just about every health condition and ailment, including diabetes. “Many diet and low-fat items are packed with added sugar in order to compensate for the reduced amount of fat,” says Jillian Kubala, RD, MS, who owns a private nutritional counselling business in Southampton, New York. “To better control blood sugar levels, consume whole, nutrient-dense foods whenever possible.”
You avoid fat entirely
“Don’t avoid fats!” Kubala says. “Healthy fats such as nuts, seeds, coconut, avocado, olive oil, and whole eggs are packed with nutrients that can help stabilize blood sugar and keep you satisfied.” Caitlin Self, MS, a functional nutritionist from Maryland adds, “Fat is the only micronutrient that doesn’t need insulin to be processed, so incorporating healthy fats into every meal can help to balance blood sugar throughout the day.” Don’t miss these 30 guilt-free healthy snacks to curb your cravings.
You eat dinner too early
Going a long time between meals can allow your blood sugar levels to dip too low, and that includes the time between dinner and breakfast. If you are an early diner and don’t do snacks before bed, you may experience blood sugar drops before you get up in the morning. “Not eating for a long time can allow blood sugars to go too low—this includes overnight,” says Katie Chapmon, MS, RD. “For many people, they need a nighttime snack about one to two hours before bedtime to ensure blood sugar control overnight.” You can’t eat too late, however. That’ll make your blood glucose elevated the next morning.
You eat dried fruit instead of fresh
If people with diabetes should be eating more fresh fruits and vegetables, dried fruits certainly count toward your goal, correct? Wrong. Indeed, these fruits could make your blood sugar soar. “While dried fruit is a great on-the-go option, it’s the last form of fruit you should be going for if you suffer from diabetes,” says Nate Masterson, CMO and a certified health expert for Maple Holistics. “When fruit is dried, it becomes more concentrated in sugar and, therefore, can spike your blood sugar levels in ways that fresh fruit won’t.” Plus, this simple lifestyle change can also help you better manage your diabetes.